Egypt

 Egypt (officially: the Arab Republic of Egypt) is an Arab country located in the northeastern corner of the continent of Africa, and has an Asian extension, where the Sinai Peninsula is located within the continent of Asia. It is a transcontinental country, with an estimated population of 103 million people, to be ranked thirteenth Countries of the world by population and the most Arab population. It is bordered to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, to the south by Sudan, to the east by the Red Sea, to the northeast by the Gaza Strip and the occupied territories (Israel) and to the west by Libya. The area of ​​the Arab Republic of Egypt is about 1,002,000 square kilometers. The inhabited area is 78,990 km2, or 7.8% of the total area. Egypt is divided administratively into 27 governorates, and each governorate is divided into smaller administrative divisions, which are centers or divisions.

Most of Egypt's population is concentrated in the Nile Valley and in urban areas. The Nile Valley and the Delta constitute less than 4% of the country's total area, or about 33,000 km2, and the largest population bloc is Greater Cairo, which has about a quarter of the population, followed by Alexandria; Most of the rest of the population also lives in the delta and on the coasts of the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and the cities of the Suez Canal. These areas occupy an area of ​​40,000 square kilometers. While the Sahara is the world constitute the majority of the country's territory.

Egypt is famous for having one of the oldest civilizations on earth. People began to migrate to the banks of the Nile and settled and began cultivating the land and raising livestock about 10,000 years ago. Its people developed rapidly, started simple industries and developed its interconnected social fabric, and they formed peaceful neighboring emirates on the banks of the Nile exchanging trade, a precedent for all countries of the world. The Badari civilization about 7000 years ago and the Naqada civilization (4400 BC - about 3000 BC) testify to this. Its natural development was to merge with each other in the north and south and unify the tribal and maritime aspects, and the central rule represented at the beginning of the dynastic era (about 3000 BC).

It exchanged trade with its neighbors, as Egypt is one of the first trading countries. The innovation of writing in Egypt had a great impact on the course of life in the country and its rapid development. The ancient Egyptian was fond of writing, and ancient Egypt also witnessed a development in the fields of medicine, engineering and arithmetic.

 Many historical eras and eras coincided with Egypt, including the Persians (about 343 BC), then the advent of Alexander the Great (323 BC), after which the Ptolemaic state was established, and then the Romans invaded (31 BC) and remained under their rule for 600 years. During the period of Roman rule, Egypt witnessed the emergence and spread of Christianity in Egypt, after which the Islamic conquest came (about 639 AD) and Egypt turned into an Islamic state. Many countries were established in Egypt such as: the Tulunid State, then the Ikhshidia, then the Fatimid, then the Ayyubid, then the Mamluk, and then it became under the rule of the Ottomans until 1914 when the Sultanate was declared, then it turned into a kingdom (1922), and then turned into a republic (1954).


Egypt is famous for its many monuments, as it has a third of the world’s monuments, such as the Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx, the Karnak Temple, Deir el-Bahari, the Valley of the Kings and its other ancient monuments, such as those found in the city of Memphis, Thebes and Karnak, and some of these monuments are displayed in major museums around the world. A special science was found for studying the antiquities of Egypt called Egyptology, as well as Roman, Greek, Coptic and Islamic antiquities of all ages.


The ancient Egyptian language is one of the oldest languages ​​in the world and lasted more than 3000 years, and the ancient Egyptians invented hieroglyphs. The Arabic language is its official language, and according to the constitution, the official religion is Islam, and the system of government in it is republican and democratic. Egypt is one of the founding members of the League of Arab States and has its headquarters. It is also one of the founding members of the United Nations, which it joined in 1945, in addition to its membership in the African Union. Egypt is also a member of many international federations and organizations, and it has many diplomatic relations with most countries of the world. In 2016, Egypt took the position of South Africa to become the second largest economy in Africa (after Nigeria).


asm misr fi allughat alearabiat wallughat alsaamiat al'ukhraa nisbat 'iilaa misrayim bin ham bin nuh, waqalat eanh alnusus alaramyat alsuwriania <<misrin>>, wayufasiruh albaed bi'anah mushtaqun min jidhr sami qadim qad yaeni albalad 'aw albasita (almumtadati), waqad yaeni aydan alhasinat 'aw almaknuna. yaerifuha alearab biaism <<misr>> wayusamiyha almisriuwn fi lahjatihim <<masr>>. 'amaa alaism aladhi eurif bih alfaraeinat mawtinuhum fi allughat hu kimit 'aw kaymaa "ⲭⲏⲙⲓ " wataeni <<al'ard alsawda'u>>, kinayat ean 'ard wadi alniyl alsawda' tamyizan laha ean al'ard alhamra' alsahrawiat dishrit almuhitat biha.

Etymology

The name of Egypt in Arabic and other Semitic languages ​​is related to Misraim bin Ham bin Noah, and the Syriac Aramaic texts said about it “Egypt.” Some interpret it as derived from an ancient Semitic root that may mean the country or the simple (extended), and it may also mean the fortified or hidden. The Arabs know it as "Egypt" and the Egyptians call it "Egypt" in their dialect. As for the name by which the Pharaohs knew their homeland in the language, it was Kemet or Kimi "ⲭⲏⲙⲓ", which means "the black land", a metaphor for the black land of the Nile Valley, to distinguish it from the red desert land surrounding it.“Majar”, ​​which meant “defend” and “country” means “confined” or “confined” and was derived from the word “jru” meaning limit, or from the word “jri” meaning fence, then a spatial meme was added to it and it became “Majar” and it was written After that, many pictures such as "Majar" and "Imjar". The ancient Egyptians used it. One of their poets described Pharaoh Senusret III as “Umjar”; No fend off and it is more like border fences.

The names it is known by in many European languages ​​derive from its Latin name Aegyptus, which in turn is derived from the Greek word Αίγυπτος, which refers to the inspiration of Homer’s imagination in his legend that he composed at a time between 1600 and 1200 BC. Egypt and its inhabitants inspired the myth of Homer referred to. The Greeks called the Nile and the land of the Nile at the same time, and then limited it to Egypt itself, and the Romans wrote it after them, Aegyptus,Perhaps the closest possible Egyptian names to the name Aegoptus and its derivatives is the name Agbe and its synonyms Agbe and Agbah, and Igb and Ekb, and they were all synonyms that symbolized the Egyptian texts to the eternal water from which the earth emerged, to the Nile, the flood and the Lord of the flood, and perhaps to the flooded land as well, in a manner What the Greeks expressed in the name of Aegoptus in later times about the Nile and the land of the Nile together, after they modified his writing to agree with their pronunciation of it and after they added at the end the letters "waw" and "sin" that they used to add to the end of most of their names.


Geography

The lands of the Arab Republic of Egypt are located between latitudes 22° and 36' 31° N, which means that the Tropic of Cancer passes through the southern tip of the country, almost as far as the southern tip of Aswan, and between longitudes 24° and 37° east of the Greenwich line.

The land of Egypt consists of an ancient Arca core, which is part of the Arab-Nubian bloc, which is part of the African Shield; Which represented the heart of the Gondwana continent in the Archean period. The African Shield, in its various parts, was subjected to the influence of many factors throughout the ages, so the land of Egypt began to grow towards the north at the expense of the Tethys Sea. and reached EgyptAt the end of the third geological time, its current area, and the features of its surface and coasts, were formed as they are now in the fourth time. The Egyptian soil in the Nile Valley and its delta was formed from the accumulation of Nile silt, which was originally derived from the rock fragments of the Abyssinian plateau, which began to be brought back to Egypt about 10 thousand years ago. Shallow textures, light sandy loam soil and sandy gravelly soil.

The country's topography can be divided into four main sections:

Nile Valley and Delta

Western Desert

Eastern desert

Sinai peninsula

the border

Egypt's current political borders are very recent, with the oldest border agreement dating back to 1899. Before that, it was a border, and by virtue of the nature of Egypt's geographical location, the link between the continents of Asia and Africa; The borders of Egypt were expanding and contracting according to the degree of strength of the Egyptian state. The Egyptian land borders are astronomical and geometric, and Egypt is adjacent to 4 countries: Palestine (Gaza Strip) and Israel to the northeast, Libya to the west, and Sudan to the south. Today, the Arab Republic of Egypt is bordered on the north by the Mediterranean Sea with a coastline of 995 km in length, and in the east by the Red Sea with a coastline of 1941 km in length, and in the northeast by Palestine (Israel and the Gaza Strip) with a length of 265 km, and in the west by Libya along a line of 1115 km in length. It is also bordered by Sudan in the south with a length of 1280 km.

the climate

The climate of Egypt is affected by several factors, the most important of which are the location, surface features, the general system of pressure, depressions, and water bodies. All of this helped divide Egypt into several distinct climatic regions. Egypt is located in the dry tropical region, except for the northern edges, which enter the temperate, greenhouse region, which enjoys a climate similar to the region The Mediterranean climate is characterized by hot and dry summer months and moderate winters, with little rain falling on the coast.
According to the country's astronomical website, its northern edges are located on the outskirts of the middle latitudes, and the rest of its parts are located within the hot and dry tropical latitudes, where the subtropical high pressure and the accompanying descending air reduce the chances of rain. Also, these shows are dominated by dry trade winds, which are characterized by their ability to carry water vapor; Because it warms as you advance south to the equator.
During the winter, the north of Egypt was dominated by the southeast, northwest and west winds; Especially the northwest coast and the delta. In Middle and Upper Egypt, the north wind prevails. In the spring, the western winds begin to recede, while the northern winds advance, in general. The summer season has a different pattern of surface winds. The northern winds and their branches dominate all directions and take the largest share of the wind directions, and they are known as the trade winds, which are dry winds and are known among the public as the marine air. The fall season is a transitional period between summer and winter conditions in Egypt, as the northern winds begin to recede, and some imbalances may occur in wind distributions.
As for the humidity, it rises in the winter, especially in the northern part of the country; The average relative humidity reaches 80% in the north of the country, 40% in the far south of the country, and reaches between 60% and 70% on the coasts of the Red Sea and the Sinai Peninsula. In the summer, it decreases in July, and the relative humidity in coastal areas ranges between 60% and 70% in July and August, while it drops to 20% in the far south of the country. As for the transitional seasons, namely spring and autumn, the relative humidity is intermediate between winter and summer.

Natural Resources

Egypt has many natural resources, including water resources on the coasts of the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, in addition to the presence of 10 natural lakes, including Lake Manzala, Lake Burullus, Lake Qarun, in addition to Lake Nasser, in addition to the main fresh water resource, the Nile River, which extends throughout Egypt. It ends in Rasheed and Damietta, and the volume of water resources available in 2000/2001 is about 68 billion cubic meters, of which about 85% are used in agriculture annually, 9.5% in industry and 5.5% in drinking.The presence of the Nile River also contributed to the spread of the agricultural area along its banks, as well as in Egypt there are mountain chains that extend in the Red Sea Mountains and the Saint Catherine Mountains in the Sinai, and there are large areas represented in the eastern and western deserts (which are characterized by the presence of a number of oases in them such as: Siwa, Farafra and Dakhla and Kharga) in addition to the Sinai desert.

Diversity in terrain and geographical locations also contributed to the availability of many natural resources such as iron, gold, manganese and phosphates, as well as stones such as: granite, basalt, marble, limestone and glass sand, in addition to coal, petroleum and natural gas.